At-Talaq is not only the name of this Surah but also the title of its subject matter, for it contains commandments about Talaq (divorce) itself.
Period of Revelation
Hadrat Abdullah bin Masud has Pointed out, and the internal evidence of the subject matter of the Surah confirms the same, that it must have been sent down after those verses of surah Al-Baqarah in which commandments concerning divorce were given for the first time.
Although the exact date of revelation is unknown,yet the traditions in any case indicate that when the people started making errors in understanding the commandments of Surah Al-Baqarah, and practically also they began to commit mistakes, Allah sent down these instructions for their correction.
Theme and Subject Matter
In order to understand the commandments of this Surah, it would be useful to refresh one’s memory about the instructions which have been given in the Qur’an concerning divorce and the waiting period (Iddat).
“Divorce may be pronounced twice; then the wife may either be kept back in fairness or allowed to separate in fairness.” (Al Baqarah 229)
“And the divorced women (after the pronouncement of the divorce) must wait for three monthly courses… and their husbands are fully entitled to take them back (as their wives) during this waiting period, if they desire reconciliation.” (Al Baqarah 228)
“Then, if the husband divorces his wife (for the third time), she shall not remain lawful for him after this divorce, unless she marries another husband…” (Al-Baqarah : 230)
“When you marry the believing women, and then divorce them before you have touched them, they do not have to fulfill a waiting period, the completion of which you may demand of them.” (Al-Ahzab : 49)
“And if those of you who die, leave wives behind, the women should abstain (from marriage) for four months and ten days.” (Al-Baqarah 234)
The rules prescribed in these verses were as follows:
A man can pronounce at the most three divorces on his wife.
In case the husband has pronounced one or two divorces he is entitled to keep the woman back as wife within the waiting period and if after the expiry of the waiting period the two desire to re-marry, they can re- marry there is no condition of legalization (tahlil).
But if the husband has pronounced three divorces, he forfeits his right to keep her as his wife within the waiting. period, and they cannot re-marry unless the woman re-marries another husband and he subsequently divorces her of his own free will.
The waiting period of the woman, who menstruates and marriage with whom has been consummated, is that she should pass three monthly courses.
The waiting period in case of one or two divorces is that the woman is still the legal wife of the husband and he can keep her back as his wife within the waiting period. But if the husband has pronounced three divorces, this waiting period cannot be taken advantage of for the purpose of reconciliation, but it is only meant to restrain the woman from re-marrying another person before it comes to an end.
There is no waiting. period for the woman, marriage with whom has not been consummated, and who is divorced even before she is touched. She can re-marry, if she likes, immediately after the divorce.
The waiting period of the woman whose husband dies, is four months and ten days.
Surah At- Talaq was not sent down to annul any of these rules or amend it, but it was sent down for two purposes;
First, that the man who has been given the right to pronounce divorce should be taught such judicious methods of using this right as do not lead to separation, as far as possible however, if separation does take place, it should only be in case all possibilities of mutual reconciliation have been exhausted. For in the Divine Law provision for divorce has been made only as an unavoidable necessity; otherwise Allah does not approve that the marriage relationship that has been established between a man and a woman should ever break. The Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah’s peace) has said “Allah has not made lawful anything more hateful in His sight than divorce.” (Abu Daud). And: “Of all the things permitted by the Law, the most hateful in the sight of Allah is the divorce, (Abu Daud)
The second object was to complement this section of the family law of Islam by supplying answers to the questions that had remained after the revelation of the commandments in Surah Al-Baqarah. So, answers have been supplied to the following questions:What would be the waiting period of the women, marriage with whom has been consummated and who no longer menstruate, or those who have not yet menstruated, in case they are divorced?What would be the waiting period of the woman, who is pregnant, or the woman whose husband dies, if she is divorced?And what arrangements would be made for the maintenance and lodging of the different categories of divorced women, and for the fosterage of the child whose parents have separated on account of a divorce?
BISMILLAHI RAHMANI RAHIM
1 Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyu itha tallaqtumu alnnisaa fatalliqoohunna liAAiddatihinna waahsoo alAAiddata waittaqoo Allaha rabbakum la tukhrijoohunna min buyootihinna wala yakhrujna illa an yateena bifahishatin mubayyinatin watilka hudoodu Allahi waman yataAAadda hudooda Allahi faqad thalama nafsahu la tadree laAAalla Allaha yuhdithu baAAda thalika amran
2 Faitha balaghna ajalahunna faamsikoohunna bimaAAroofin aw fariqoohunna bimaAAroofin waashhidoo thaway AAadlin minkum waaqeemoo alshshahadata lillahi thalikum yooAAathu bihi man kana yuminu biAllahi waalyawmi alakhiri waman yattaqi Allaha yajAAal lahu makhrajan
3 Wayarzuqhu min haythu la yahtasibu waman yatawakkal AAala Allahi fahuwa hasbuhu inna Allaha balighu amrihi qad jaAAala Allahu likulli shayin qadran
4 Waallaee yaisna mina almaheedi min nisaikum ini irtabtum faAAiddatuhunna thalathatu ashhurin waallaee lam yahidna waolatu alahmali ajaluhunna an yadaAAna hamlahunna waman yattaqi Allaha yajAAal lahu min amrihi yusran
5 Thalika amru Allahi anzalahu ilaykum waman yattaqi Allaha yukaffir AAanhu sayyiatihi wayuAAthim lahu ajran
6 Askinoohunna min haythu sakantum min wujdikum wala tudarroohunna litudayyiqoo AAalayhinna wain kunna olati hamlin faanfiqoo AAalayhinna hatta yadaAAna hamlahunna fain ardaAAna lakum faatoohunna ojoorahunna watamiroo baynakum bimaAAroofin wain taAAasartum fasaturdiAAu lahu okhra
7 Liyunfiq thoo saAAatin min saAAatihi waman qudira AAalayhi rizquhu falyunfiq mimma atahu Allahu la yukallifu Allahu nafsan illa ma ataha sayajAAalu Allahu baAAda AAusrin yusran
8 Wakaayyin min qaryatin AAatat AAan amri rabbiha warusulihi fahasabnaha hisaban shadeedan waAAaththabnaha AAathaban nukran
9 Fathaqat wabala amriha wakana AAaqibatu amriha khusran
10 aAAadda Allahu lahum AAathaban shadeedan faittaqoo Allaha ya olee alalbabi allatheena amanoo qad anzala Allahu ilaykum thikran
11 Rasoolan yatloo AAalaykum ayati Allahi mubayyinatin liyukhrija allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati mina alththulumati ila alnnoori waman yumin biAllahi wayaAAmal salihan yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtiha alanharu khalideena feeha abadan qad ahsana Allahu lahu rizqan
12 Allahu allathee khalaqa sabAAa samawatin wamina alardi mithlahunna yatanazzalu alamru baynahunna litaAAlamoo anna Allaha AAala kulli shayin qadeerun waanna Allaha qad ahata bikulli shayin AAilman
1 O Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! When you divorce women, divorce them at their ‘Iddah (prescribed periods) and count (accurately) their ‘Iddah (periods ). And fear Allah your Lord (O Muslims). And turn them not out of their (husband’s) homes nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of some open illegal sexual intercourse. And those are the set limits of Allah. And whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has wronged himself. You (the one who divorces his wife) know not it may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass (i.e. to return her back to you if that was the first or second divorce).
2 Then when they are about to attain their term appointed, either take them back in a good manner or part with them in a good manner. And take as witness two just persons from among you (Muslims). And establish the testimony for Allah. That will be an admonition given to him who believes in Allah and the Last Day. And whosoever fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty).
3 And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allah, then He will suffice him. Verily, Allah will accomplish his purpose. Indeed Allah has set a measure for all things.
4 And those of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the ‘Iddah (prescribed period), if you have doubt (about their periods), is three months; and for those who have no courses [(i.e. they are still immature) their ‘Iddah (prescribed period) is three months likewise, except in case of death] . And for those who are pregnant (whether they are divorced or their husbands are dead), their ‘Iddah (prescribed period) is until they lay down their burden; and whosoever fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him, He will make his matter easy for him.
5 That is the Command of Allah, which He has sent down to you; and whosoever fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him, He will expiate from him his sins, and will enlarge his reward.
6 Lodge them (the divorced women) where you dwell, according to your means, and do not harm them so as to straiten them (that they be obliged to leave your house). And if they are pregnant, then spend on them till they lay down their burden. Then if they give suck to the children for you, give them their due payment, and let each of you accept the advice of the other in a just way. But if you make difficulties for one another, then some other woman may give suck for him (the father of the child).
7 Let the rich man spend according to his means; and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. Allah will grant after hardship, ease.
8 And many a town (population) revolted against the Command of its Lord and His Messengers; and We called it to a severe account (i.e. torment in this worldly life), and We shall punish it with a horrible torment (in Hell in the Hereafter).
9 So it tasted the evil result of its affair (disbelief), and the consequence of its affair (disbelief) was loss (destruction in this life and an eternal punishment in the Hereafter).
10 Allah has prepared for them a severe torment. So fear Allah and keep your duty to Him, O men of understanding who have believed! Allah has indeed sent down to you a Reminder (this Qur’an).
11 (And has also sent to you) a Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), who recites to you the Verses of Allah (the Qur’an) containing clear explanations, that He may take out those who believe and do righteous good deeds, from the darkness (of polytheism and disbelief) to the light (of Islamic Monotheism). And whosoever believes in Allah and performs righteous good deeds, He will admit him into Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise) to dwell therein forever. Allah has indeed granted for him an excellent provision.
12 It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge.
*The rules of divorce in whatever circumstance have been clearly outlined in this Surah.. it is a lesson and guide to us all to fall back when we think the situation is hard.remeber Allah does not give anyone a burden than that they can handle.. divorcE is allowed but disliked by Allah.. and we are clearly warned of a punishment if we donot abide by the laws and guidelines required before we leave our spouces
**MAY ALLAH GUIDE US ALL**